Collective Security can be understood as a security arrangement where a group of countries pledge co-operative joint action in the eyes of threat to their economic or territorial sovereignty. (1a) Insofar as the Länder are competent to exercise state powers and to perform state functions, they may, with the consent of the Federal Government, transfer sovereign powers to transfrontier institutions in neighbouring regions. The theory of collective security invokes a strong analogy to domestic law enforcement. It is universally acknowledged that collective security is today organized under the United Nations; however, regional organizations, which used to focus primarily on economic matters, have attained greater prominence in collective security efforts especially since the end of the Cold War. With shrinking global boundaries and the concept of a global village, the states have become subjects of one global body. Article 8 Article 7. In international politics, however, such clarity has been rare. This Treaty does not affect, and shall not be interpreted as affecting in any way the rights and obligations under the Charter of the Parties which are members of the United Nations, or the primary responsibility of the Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security. The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO; Russian: Организация Договора о Коллективной Безопасности, Organizatsiya Dogovora o Kollektivnoy Bezopasnosti, ODKB) is an intergovernmental military alliance that was signed on 15 May 1992. Collective security also implies that the members are confident of their definition of aggression, so that all members can agree when aggression by one member has occurred. An early effort for collective security, attempted in a conference in Muscat in 1975, was thwarted by Baathist Iraq. Article 51 “ Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defence if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations, until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and security. [Transfer of sovereign powers – System of collective security] (1) The Federation may, by a law, transfer sovereign powers to international organisations.